# How to calculate checksum in information and technology

It can be done using the software like MD5 & SHA Checksum Utility and Online Checksum calculator.

Explanation:

Around 99.9% of the cases, you are not required to care for the checksum while you download the files from the Internet. Though, if you download something sensitive such as antivirus or the complicated software such as Tor, the good habit is to verify once the checksum since the hackers can inject the malware-infested versions of that critical software for gaining complete access to your system.

Many utilities are available for calculating the checksum, but only one or two are the best ones like MD5 & SHA Checksum Utility and Online Checksum calculator.

Install the first one on your computer.

This one is quite simple and very easy for using, you just need to click on the browse button for choosing your file, and automatically the hashes will be calculated for the MD5, SHA-512, SHA-1, and SHA-256.  THE MD5 is the shortest and the SHA-512 is most in length. And the lengthier the hash, the more secure it happens to be.

For the verification of the hash, you simply need to copy and then paste it over at the hash box, which is located at the bottom. Now click on the verify and it will then compare it with the generated hashes (4 in number) to check if there is a match. If it matches you are safe.

You can also use the Online checksum calculator if you want.

We can calculate the checksum on our own as well:

We want to send 32 bit message, and hence we devide it into m parts of k bits each such that mk= total size of data sent in bit, or whatever unit used.

10101010101010101010101010101111

Divide above in four parts:

10101010

10101010

10101010

10101111

Now add first 2 and if 1 is carry over, add it to the resultant. Go on doing this till you get the final sum. And then take 1s complement

10101010

10101010

----------

01010100

1

---------

01010101

10101010

------------

11111111

10101111

-----------

10101110

1

----------

10101111  take 1s complement

01010000 (checksum)

Send four original parts and checksum to receiver

all four parts are added, which will be same as previous, when we added them. Now add this to checksum, and take 1st complement, ad if everything is 0. It means our data ia original, and we need not worry.

10101111

01010000

-----------

11111111 take 1s complement

00000000

All are 0 hence the file is not corrupt and the original one sent.

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The fault-tolerant nature of the DNS ensures that: a) if users can't reach a host computer, they are redirected back to the previous page. b) mistyped or misspelled Web addresses are automatically corrected. c) if a document or file can't be accessed, it won't result in a 404 error. d) the service continues functioning even if one nameserver goes down. e) mismatched host names and domain names are still assigned with the correct IP address.

d) the service continues functioning even if one name server goes down.

Explanation:

Fault tolerance is the property that enables a system to continue operating properly in the event of the failure of some of its components.

The objective of creating a fault-tolerant system is to prevent disruptions arising from a single point of failure, ensuring the high availability and business continuity of mission-critical applications or systems.

The fault-tolerant nature of the DNS ensures that the service continues functioning even if one name server goes down.

d) the service continues functioning even if one name server goes down.

Explanation:

In internet DNS do the important role, It translate domain name such as (google.co.in, bing.com etc..) to valid IP address, Which is understandable format for computer to get the domain page access. It also play an important role to access emails for specific domain.

DNS fault-tolerant is which try to fetch service continues functioning where named server goes down. System continuously pinging the named server the server or services goes down.

As example If a person ring the doorbell continually for locked house.

What is HTML ?
Give a small description about html

Hypertext Markup Language, a standardized system for tagging text files to achieve font, colour, graphic, and hyperlink effects on World Wide Web pages.
this information was taken from google

Hypertext markup language

Write a program that reads in a list of numbers, and for each number, determines and prints out whether or not that number is abundant.

int IsAbundant(int n)
{
int divisorSum = 0;
for (int i = 1; i < n; i++) {
if ((n % i) == 0) {
divisorSum += i;
}
}
return divisorSum > n;
}

int main()
{
int number = 0;
do {
printf("Enter a number (0 to quit): ");
scanf_s("%d", &number);
if (IsAbundant(number)) {
printf("%d is abundant!\n", number);
} else
{
printf("%d is not abundant.\n", number); }
} while (number > 0);

return 0;
}