The nervous system develops throughout the human body and includes very different elements in their forms and functions. It is divided into two complementary systems, the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) and the Central Nervous System (CNS).
The SNP includes all the nerve tissue that runs through the body. It has a dual function: to receive information by sensory sensors and transmit them to the CNS, and to activate motor functions controlled by the CNS. It consists of two parts, that somatic, activating the skeletal muscles and that, autonomous, attached to the viscera.
The CNS is the brain and spinal cord. It is the center of information processing.
Teratogens are more likely to cause ______ damage during the embryonic stage and _____ damage during the fetal stage.
What happens to a cell in a hypertonic solution?
A 10-year-old male is stung by a bee while playing in the yard. He experiences a severe allergic reaction and has to go to the ER. This reaction is the result of:
Anaphylaxis (commonly known as anaphylactic shock)
Anaphylaxis is a severe, life-threatening allergic reaction.
It is generally a result of the body's immune system overreacting to an allergen (such as a bee sting) by producing an overabundance of inflammatory mediators and cytokines from mast cells and basophils.
Normally, the mast cells and basophils produce an appropriate amount of inflammatory mediators and cytokines but for reasons that are not quite clear to science some people over produce these normal immune system response chemicals.
This overreaction on the part of the body causes rapid inflammation of various tissues in the body including those of the upper respiratory system, which in turn can inadvertently shut down the ability of a person to breath. Anaphylaxis, therefore, is a very serious medical condition and proper precautions (antihistamine and or steroid shots like the EpiPen ) must be taken for those that suffer from this condition.
Explain the similarities and differences between diffusion, osmosis, facilitated diffusion and active transport.
All of them are transport systems that help the cells introduce or excrete substances. The difference is that each one is substance-specific and some require energy or carring proteins.
The cells transport is the action of move substances through cell membrane. In human cells, the membrane is selectively permeable, this means that membrane control which molecules can enter de cell. We can separate the cells transport in two groups: no energy need and energy need. The transports that don’t need energy and moves through a gradient of concentration are: simple diffusion (molecules pass through cell membrane a favor of gradient, that is high to low concentration) like gas, alcohol molecules, and other no polar molecules. Facilitated diffusion, is like simple diffusion but need a protein channel to transport big or insoluble molecules. And osmosis, molecules of water moves through cell membrane to high concentration to less concentration using specific protein channels called aquaporins.
The type of transport that need energy (ATP molecules) are the active transport, this is because molecules pass through cell membrane against gradient concentration (low to high concentration), like sodium-potassium bomb or glucose transport.